Glossary

TermDefinition
AffirmationRecognizes and celebrates school accomplishments and acknowledges failures.
Attained curriculumContent actually learned by students.
Change agentIs willing to and actively challenges the status quo.
CommunicationEstablishes strong lines of communication with teachers and among students.
Contingent rewardsRecognizes and rewards individual accomplishments.
CultureFosters shared beliefs and a sense of community and cooperation.
DifferenceFor each responsibility, the difference between the principal's score and the teachers' average score is computed. The standard deviation of the teachers' scores also is computed. If the absolute difference between the principal's score and the teachers' average score is greater than the standard deviation of the teachers' score, then the responsibility is flagged.
DisciplineProtects teachers from issues and influences that would detract from their teaching time or focus.
First-order changeFirst-order change implies a logical extension of past and current practices. Actions associated with a first-order change represent incremental improvements. First-order changes can be implemented with current knowledge and skills.
FlexibilityAdapts his or her leadership behavior to the needs of the current situation and is comfortable with dissent.
FocusEstablishes clear goals and keeps those goals in the forefront of the school's attention.
FrameworkThe Framework arranges the 21 responsibilities of effective leaders into three key components: Focus of Leadership, Building purposeful community and Magnitude of change. The Balanced Leadership Framework is available as a pdf download or for purchase. See "FOCUS" in the Professional Development Tools and Resources to download or purchase.
Holding environmentHolding environment is a figurative "safe space" for staff members to talk about what is going on in the organization. It is where they can talk wit h one another about the challenges they face, debate issues, and clarify assumptions. It is especially important for leaders to create a holding environment in the early stages of the change process, when people have been uprooted from the familiar and feel vulnerable.
Ideals/beliefsCommunicates and operates from strong ideals and beliefs about schooling.
Implemented curriculumContent actually taught by teachers.
Improvement InitiativeAn Improvement Initiative is a change that your school or your district is engaged in currently or will be engaged in during the next twelve (12) months. This change:
> Is specific intervention (e.g., ABC Writing Program, standards-based report card)
> Has a time frame (e.g., 2007-2008 school year)
> May be focused on a measurable outcome (e.g., 10% increase in 3rd-grade reading scores)

Some examples of an Improvement Initiative are:
> Implement standards-based grading in all Standard Elementary School classrooms by the end of the first semester.
> District-wide, increase by 10% those English Language Learners who are at "proficient" level by the end of the school year with the use of the XYZ reading program.
> Implement data-driven decision-making in our school's classrooms by the end of the school year by utilizing the consultant Jane Doe's professional development process to do so.
> Increase the standardized test-scores of students in our school district during the 2006-2007 school year by employing John Doe's research-based instructional strategies.

When identifying your Improvement Initiative, please explain clearly and concisely the name of the initiative so that other survey respondents will recognize it readily.
InputInvolves teachers in the design and implementation of important decisions.
Intellectual stimulationEnsures that the faculty and staff are aware of the most current theories and practices and makes the discussion of these a regular aspect of the school culture.
Intended curriculumContent specified by states, districts or schools.
Involvement in CIAIs directly involved in the design and implementation of curriculum, instruction and assessment practices.
Involvement in curriculum, instruction, and assessmentIs directly involved in the design and implementation of curriculum, instruction and assessment practices.
Knowledge of CIAIs knowledgeable about current curriculum, instruction, and assessment practices.
Knowledge of curriculum, instruction, and assessmentIs knowledgeable about current curriculum, instruction, and assessment practices.
Magnitude of changeThe magnitude of change is determined by the implications the change holds for the people expected to implement it and for those who will be affected by the change.
MethodologyThe determination of whether results are indicative of 1st or 2nd order change is made on the basis on an algorithm that utilizes both the intensity and the pattern of responses to the specific 10 statements in the survey. These 10 statements were specifically developed to differentiate perspectives of 1st and 2nd order change. See (cite or connect to document describing 1st and 2nd order change) for more detail on 1st and 2nd order change.
MixedResponses to statements about this improvement initiative are mixed at this time, providing no clear indication as to whether this initiative represents a 1st order change or a 2nd order change for some survey participant(s).
Monitor and evaluateMonitors the effectiveness of school practices and their impact on student learning.
Negatively associatedThe results of McREL's factor analysis reveal that when principals are engaged in a second-order change, they may struggle to fulfill 4 leadership responsibilities (e.g., culture, communication, order and input).
OptimizeInspires and leads new and challenging innovations.
OrderEstablishes a set of standard operating procedures and routines.
OutreachIs an advocate and spokesperson for the school to all stakeholders.
Perceptible differenceFor each responsibility, the difference between the principal's score and the teachers' average score is computed. The standard deviation of the teachers' scores also is computed. If the absolute difference between the principal's score and the teachers' average score is greater than the standard deviation of the teachers' score, then the responsibility is flagged.
Positively associatedPositively associated - McREL's factor analysis suggests that when principals are involved in a second-order change, they emphasize the 7 leadership responsibilities (i.e., knowledge of curriculum, instruction, and assessment; optimize; intellectual stimulation; change agent; monitor and evaluate; flexibility; ideals and beliefs).
RelationshipsDemonstrates awareness of the personal aspects of teachers and staff.
ResourcesProvides teachers with materials and professional development necessary for the successful execution of their jobs.
Second-order changeSecond-order change implies a fundamental or significant break with past and current practices. This type of change represents a dramatic difference in current practices. Second-order changes require new knowledge and skills for successful implementation.
Situational awarenessIs aware of the details and the undercurrents in the running of the school and uses this information to address current and potential problems.
VisibilityHas quality contact and interaction with teachers and students.